All you need to know about Rheumatoid arthritis

All you need to know about Rheumatoid arthritis


  1. What is arthritis?
  2. Symptoms of arthritis
  3. Causes of arthritis
  4. Common types of arthritis
  5. Arthritis management
  6. How can PPARs be the best solution for arthritis?

Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints which can affect one or more joints. There are several types of arthritis, and every kind of arthritis requires different treatment/methods. Two of the most common types are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Symptoms of arthritis usually develop over time, but they may also appear suddenly. Arthritis is the most commonly seen in adults over the age of 65, but it can also develop in children, teens, and younger adults. Arthritis is more common in women than men and in people who are overweight.


What are the symptoms of arthritis?

  • Joint pain
  • Stiffness
  • Selling
  • decrease of motion
  • may experience redness
  • inflammation
  • severe RA can cause joints deformity

Causes of arthritis

- Injury

- Metabolic abnormalities

- Hereditary factors

- The direct and the indirect effect of infection (bacterial and viral)

- a misdirected immune system with autoimmunity (such as in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematous)

Arthritis is classified as one of the rheumatoid diseases. There are conditions- that are different individual illnesses, with differing features, treatments, complications, and prognosis. They are similar in that they tend to affect joints, muscles, ligaments, cartilage, tendons, and many can affect other internal body areas.

Cartilage is a firm but flexible connective tissue in your joints. It protects the joints by absorbing the pressure and shock created when you move and stress them. A reduction in the normal amount of this cartilage tissue cause forms of arthritis.

Normal wear and tear cause osteoarthritis, which is a common form of arthritis. An infection or injury to the joints can exacerbate the natural breakdown of cartilage tissue. Your risk of developing osteoarthritis may be higher if you have a family history of the disease.

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder. It occurs when your body's immune system attacks the tissue of the body. These attacks affect the synovium, a soft tissue in your joints that produces a fluid that nourishes the cartilage and lubricates the joints.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease of the synovium that will invade and destroy a joint. It can eventually lead to the destruction of both bone and cartilage inside the joint.

The exact cause of the immune system attacks is unknown, but scientists have discovered genetic markers that increase your risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.

Common types of arthritis

  1. Osteoarthritis
  2. Rheumatoid arthritis
  3. Juvenile arthritis
  4. Spondyloarthropathies
  5. Lupus erythematosus
  6. Gout
  7. Infectious and reactive arthritis
  8. Psoriatic arthritis


Osteoarthritis (OA), also called degenerative arthritis, is the most common type of arthritis. Osteoarthritis causes the cartilage in joints to break down and eventually cause your bones to rub together. Joints will be eventually inflamed and may lead to joint injuries or even bone spur formation.

Causes of osteoarthritis may include age, obesity, injuries, family history, and joint overuse, which can increase the risk of developing it. Common symptoms include; joint soreness, morning stiffness, lack of coordination, and increasing disability.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a type of autoimmune disease in which your body attacks healthy joint tissue. RA's symptoms may include morning stiffness, joint pain, sleeping difficulty, numbness, burning, and tingling in the hands and feet. Additional symptoms may also develop in other parts of the body, including the heart, lungs, eyes, and skin. Sjogren's syndrome frequently occurs with rheumatoid arthritis, and this condition causes dry eyes and mouth.

Juvenile arthritis

Juvenile arthritis (JA) is a type of arthritis that affects children. It is a type of autoimmune disorder that can impact children's joints. It starts to occur in children younger than 16 years old.

Juvenile arthritis can cause;

- Muscle and soft tissue to tighten

- Bones to erode

- Growth patterns to change

- Joints to misalign


Spondyloarthritis is another autoimmune condition that can attack the locations where tendons and ligaments attach to your bone. Symptoms include pain and stiffness, especially in your lower back.

Psoriatic arthritis

Most people with psoriasis will also have psoriatic arthritis (PSA). The fingers are most commonly affected, but these painful conditions affect other joints as well. Pink-colored fingers that appear sausage-like pitting and degradation of the fingernails may also occur.

This disease may progress to involve the spine, which causes damage similar to that ankylosing spondylitis. If you have psoriasis, there's a chance you may develop PSA.



A gout is also a form of arthritis caused by the accumulation of urate crystals inside your joints. High levels of uric acid in your blood may put you at risk of gout. Age, diet, alcohol use, and family history can affect your risk of developing gout. Gout can be excruciating. A joint at the base of your big toe is the most likely to be involved, although it can potentially affect other joints. You may experience redness, swelling, and intense pain in your toes, ankles, feet, knees, hands, and wrists.

Other conditions that have similar symptoms of arthritis.


Lupus is an autoimmune system mistakenly attacking the body's lungs and other body organs to be affected. Joint pain and swelling are common in lupus, particularly in the hands and feet small joints. Joint pain in the lupus can move around from one joint to another. Lupus can be difficult to diagnose, as it can cause many different symptoms, which often appear like other conditions.



Fibromyalgia is a long-term condition that causes pain and tenderness all over the body. The symptoms can be similar to arthritis as well. The difference is that the pain and symptoms mainly appear in muscles rather than the joints. The most common symptoms of fibromyalgia are:

- Widespread pain

- Trouble sleeping

- Fatigue

- Headache

- Difficulty concentrating

- Poor memory


Arthritis management

When it comes to arthritis, managing the symptoms and flare-ups is very important. Five main steps are encouraged to follow when it comes to arthritis management.

1. Learn new self-management skills. – Get to know what causes flare-ups and what triggers the pain. Learn how to manage the flare-up.

2. Be active – exercise regularly. Regular exercise can help keep your joints flexible. Swimming and water aerobics may be a good choice because the water buoyancy reduces stress on weight-bearing joints.

3. Manage your weight – if you're obese, losing weight will reduce your weight-bearing joints' stress. This may increase your mobility and limit joint injury.

4. Protect the joints: Talk to your doctor about the proper medication and the suitable measures to manage the pain and symptoms. Use heating pads/ice packs which may help in relieving arthritis pain. Use assistive devices such as canes, shoe inserts, or any other suitable devices to protect joints and improve the ability to perform daily tasks.


PPARs as the best solution for arthritis

The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins beneficial in increasing and regulating gene expression. PPARs are crucial for maintaining a robust immune system, healing, cell regeneration, and rejuvenation.

PPAR is involved in various independent and DNA-dependent molecular and enzymatic pathways in adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscles. Studies show PPARs are the main protein needed by our body. Moreover, PPARs are also rich in anti-inflammatory properties, effective in inflammatory diseases such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and more.

Types of PPARs

Theoretically, PPARs compromise three different subtypes/isoforms, the PPAR alpha, the PPAR gamma, and the PPAR beta. PPAR alpha is expressed mainly in the liver, and PPAR Beta is expressed primarily in skeletal tissue. PPAR gamma regulates inflammation immunity, expressed in adipose tissue, colon, and macrophages.

Anti-inflammatory properties of PPARs is fundamental as it helps to suppress the production of inflammatory enzymes as cytokines. PPARs also repress the production of pro-inflammatory and angiogenic enzymes, which help to relieve swells and joint pain. Eventually, minimize the possibilities of relapse after recovery.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease. It is characterized by persistent synovitis, systemic inflammation, autoantibodies production, and bone destruction. PPAR gamma and its ligand are the most critical ones for modulating immune cells like monocytes, T cells, NK CELLS, and inflammatory reactions. A study shows that PPARγ protein expression in rheumatoid arthritis patients inversely related to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity. The study findings support the role of PPARγ in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis, and the expression of PPARγ has anti-rheumatic effects.

PPARs also aids in self-healing and boost the repair of damaged tissues and cells. It not only helps alleviate the symptoms of RA naturally but also minimizes the relapse after recovery. PPARs activate and boost the body tissues for functions and promote the body for self-healing. Not only does it treat rheumatoid arthritis naturally, but more importantly, it minimizes the possibility of relapse after recovery. Besides, it is also highly beneficial for the health of other diseases and illnesses.




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